From 'Holocaust by Bullets' to Auschwitz

Regional Dimensions of the Final Solution

Uzhhorod National University

Transcarpathia, Ukraine

16-18 June 2019

From 'Holocaust by Bullets' to Auschwitz

Regional Dimensions of the Final Solution

Uzhhorod National University

Transcarpathia, Ukraine

16-18 June 2019

a groundbreaking conference

Auschwitz Death Camp


The conference will provide an integrated and multi-dimensional view of the evolution of the Final Solution in Central and Eastern Europe. It aims to present new voices, new perspectives, and new approaches for understanding the Holocaust.  Most widely known images depict only the final chapter, the extermination of millions in gas chambers, however the ghettoization and subsequent extermination of millions between 1941-1943 was also carried out by lesser known (but equally lethal) 'person-to-person' methods: bullets. The conference connects the starting and final chapters and  the ongoing genocide between them. The conference will also commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Hungarian Holocaust.

Scientific Organizing Committee
Dr. George Eisen, Professor Emeritus & AVPAA—Chair, USA
Dr. Maarten

Organizers & Host Institution


1. Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, is a leading higher education institution in the Transcarpathia region of Ukraine.


2. John Wesley Theological College houses 

the Institute for the Research of the Holocaust & Christianity, Budapest


3. Salisbury University, a prominent regional educational institution, is a member of the Maryland State University System, USA


4. Galicia Jewish Museum, Cracow



   As the host of the conference, the State University of Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, was selected for its academic excellence as well as central location,  in a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual region. Transcarpathia has been populated through the centuries by Rusyns, Hungarians, Romanians, Slovakians, Germans  Jews and Roma. At the "cross-roads" of the region, Uzhhorod is easily accessible from the  neighboring countries by car or train. Overseas participants can fly to Budapest or other regional airports in Hungary and proceed by train.

S’tut vey!
S’tut shrecklekh vey!
It hurts!
It hurts terribly!
When not the foreign enemy,
But they!

Themes & Topics

Regional Implementation of the Holocaust: Comparative Perspectives

The evolution of the Holocaust: from Bullets to Gas Chambers

"The Silence of God:" Religion, Faith, and the Holocaust

Holocaust Education: Lessons for Future Generations

The Holocaust in Contemporary Political Discourse

The Holocaust in the Mirror of Literature, Art, Film and Music

Reconstituting a Community: Post Holocaust Generations

Perpetrators, Collaborators, & Rescuers in the Holocaust

Forgotten Victims: Roma, 'Homosexuals,' Jehovah Witnesses

Gender and Genocide

Students' Reflections: What Have They Learned about the Holocaust


Additional themes and topics relating to the Holocaust are welcomed



Dr. George Eisen, Professor Emeritus & AVPAA—Chair, USA

Dr. Maarten Pereboom, Dean, Salisbury University, USA

Dr. Oksana Sviezhentseva, Head of the Department of International Relations, UNU, Uzhhorod

Dr. Natalya Kubiniy, Professor, UNU, Uzhhorod

Dr. Tibor Deutsch, Professor Emeritus, SOTE, Budapest

Dr. Tamas Majsai, Professor, John Wesley Theological College, Budapest

Dr. Peter Tibor Nagy, Professor, John Wesley Theological College, Budapest

Dr. Alexander Bokotey, Professor, UNU, Uzhhorod

Rev. Matthew J. Temple, O. Carm. Ph.D. Nazareth College, USA

Dr. Zoltan Tibori Szabo, Director, Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj, Romania  


  Please read it carefully and respond as soon as possible: 

  1. PROCEEDINGS: Work on the online proceedings has started. While some  of you have already have done so, please forward the finished presentation as soon as possible for inclusion in this publication. 
  2. REFLECTIONS: The Organizing Committee would like to request your reflections on the conference. Again, some of you have already sent them to us. However, your impressions are important. We are looking forward to receive them.
  3. PICTURES: it’s amazing how many new friendships and cooperative ideas came out of this conference! Select and send one picture for inclusion in the “Conference Gallery.” 

conference reflections


"This conference was really amazing with fantastic people! I am so happy I could be part of it! Thank you for the invitation, and I hope it will continue! Toda raba :)" Diana Groo

"I can't tell you enough how much this conference has meant to me, to all of us. Only three days long, it felt much longer. The strong connections and friendships that developed as a result of your efforts have become so important to me. We hope to get together at another conference so that we can continue to share our stories and search for a deeper understanding of whatever void still plagues us." Joan Stein Schimke


"I especially enjoyed the friendly atmosphere of the meetings, discussions. The conference gave me an opportunity to meet with friends and colleagues and to get new connections." Tamas Stark


"For me, and for others, it was a very important and unique experience. 

The voice of the creative worlds of the second generation have not yet been heard in the context of Holocaust studies. It's time to embrace the interdisciplinary approach and let the literature, the performing and the visual arts enrich the experience, the knowledge, the thought and before and above all the educational field of Holocaust studies. It's time to bring out this wonderful rich and important creation and use it as a base ground for Holocaust studies. In this regard I want to thank you for being among the pioneers.

Thank you also for letting me meet the wonderful people I met in the conference, including you." Diti Ronen

“Thanks for the Conference. 😊 It was the special gathering of the special people on the very special occasion.” Krystyna Lenkowska


"We appreciated very much the opportunity that we were given to present the history of the persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses under the Nazi occupation in Ukraine and we felt welcomed with this topic at this conference.

Attendees that listened to this presentation were surprised to receive information regarding Jehovah’s Witnesses completely unknown to them, e.g., that they were also stigmatized with a purple triangle, were among the first ones to be interned in the early concentration camps, and initially made up the majority of the inmates (in some satellite camps even up to a hundred percent). Our presentation made possible a fruitful interchange of discussion among scholars and students to answer questions like: What was the relationship between Jews and Jehovah’s Witnesses during the Holocaust period? Why were Jehovah’s Witnesses persecuted by the Nazis? How were the Nazis able to identify Jehovah’s Witnesses among their population? (E.g., by refusing to say “Heil Hitler!”/refusal to display the swastika flag outside their homes/as conscientious objectors/by their preaching activity/by meeting together under ban for their worship.) Are there similarities between past Nazi persecution and modern-day persecution of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Russia? Are Jehovah’s Witnesses experiencing  the same problems in other countries like in Russia today? It was indeed a very positive and lively discussion. Both participants and students were pleased to receive supplemental printed information about this historical aspect of the persecution history of Jehovah’s Witnesses." Wolfram Slupina

"It was a great conference and I hope it will continue. Thanks, George, for being an excellent organizer. With your amazing personality you made this event an unforgettable experience. I would say some magic happened in Uzhhorod. I know you that you don’t like when someone praises you. But I must be honest and tell that you made an excellent job. I am sure it took a lot of work and energy from you, (and others too).

I liked that the conference wasn’t a boring conventional event, but you established a new concept of how we can deeply think of and remember the Holocaust. Unfortunately, the remembrance and the commemoration of the Holocaust often become empty, sadly even in Israel. We must search for new ways of talking about the Holocaust. I liked that it was a fresh and creative event that was more an encounter, a discussion between people that want to say something about the topic seriously but with a friendly, loving manner. I liked that nobody wanted to take over or monopolizing the truth in the conference. 

I am sure that this event must continue and to be a model how we should remember and commemorate, and also researchers can present they scientific findings. I am very glad that I had a small part of it." Zoltan Haberman

"My feedback on the conference is all in all positive considering the chance of meeting people involved in similar interest, and especially connecting to those who have shared their own personal stories and their everlasting reflections - deeply enriching for me. I will be using material that I have received from co-participants during my forthcoming courses for international students (Remembrance Education) and also the planned anthology once you publish it. I am deeply sorry that I could not participate in the pre - and post conference events and join the study tour of the American / Transylvanian students. "  Renáta A. Dezső


The Synagogue of Uzhhorod--
Site of the Holocaust Memorial Concert

The Synagogue of Uzhhorod-- Site of the Holocaust Memorial Concert

optional trips for conference participants


Pre-Conference Trip June 11-15: AUSCHWITZ

Join the American students for an optional trip, in cooperation with the Galicia Jewish Museum in Krakow. The trip will include a visit to Auschwitz and its museum, the area of the ghetto of Krakow, tour of the Schindler factory, view of the exhibits in the Galicia  Jewish Museum, and an evening of Jewish culture. 

Post Conference Trip: "Vanished World:  Once Jews Lived Here" June 19-20 

Visit to the small village of Vilhivce (Irholc in Hungarian) in Transcarpathia.    

The shtetle, frozen in time, hosts two cemeteries and a synagogue, which was converted to a storage facility and has not been used since 1944. After a visit of these sites, a lecture about the history of the Jews of the village, their deportation and murder, and the reciting of the Kaddish in the synagogue will complement the visit.


The Trip will continue across the border to Sighet, Romania, the birth place of Elie Wiesel, where a tour of the town and a lecture will conclude the Field Trip. From there, the group will return to Budapest.

Tour of Budapest June 21-25:  

Interested participants may join the American delegation on a 4-day tour of Budapest. Special activities include an introduction to Jewish Budapest, visit of historical sites, and cultural events.  

Estimated Cost: in progress

The Synagogue of Vilhivce-Irholc 

Participant & Sponsoring organizations

A Special Thank You to the following entities and individuals for their support of the conference. This is only a preliminary list of sponsoring and/or participating organizations. Updates are provided periodically:

  • State University of Uzhhorod National University, Transcarpathia 
  • Salisbury University, Maryland
  • John Wesley Theological College, Budapest 
  • Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj, Romania
  • Jewish Theological Seminary--University of Jewish Studies, Budapest
  • "Stefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania 
  • Galicia Jewish Museum, Krakow
  • The Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities, Budapest
  • EV Global Education Consulting, Delaware 
  • Hungarian Fulbright Commission, Budapest
  • GlobiXe LLC, Rochester
  • Fundatia Tarbut Sighet-Cultura si Educatie Iudaica, Romania

Individual Donors

  • Dr. David Cohen & Ellen Cohen
  • EV Global Education Consulting
  • Stanley Bassin
  • Aubrey H. Fine


Join Our Mailing List

Provide your email to receive notifications or after conference released information

Contact Us

From Bullets to Auschwitz

Get in Touch!


This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.